Instructions for writing final theses at the Department of Information Technologies

In the following text you will find all the information needed for writing of bachelor's and master's theses at the Department of Information Technologies.

Note: For registration dates, formal requirements and other instructions concerning theses always refere to the faculty website.

The following text applies to the final theses supervised at the Department of Information Technologies FEM CZU Prague and is not intended for the outside use. The thesis supervisor may elaborate on certain details if needed. 

Version: May 2021


  1. What is a diploma / bachelor thesis?
  2. Selection of final thesis topic - interviews
  3. Thesis assignment
  4. Content and structure of thesis
  5. Recommended sources of literature
  6. Terms and credits
  7. Thesis seminars organized by DIT
  8. Thesis defense - presentation structure
  9. Tips and recommendations
  10. Annex

1 What is a diploma / bachelor thesis?

Diploma and bachelor (hereinafter only final thesis) theses are the first research works of students. It is a professional and scientific text on a given topic with a clearly defined goal. Each work contains a theoretical and practical part (more on the chapters is in Chapter 4). In the practical part the student fulfills the main goal. To achieve the goal, it is necessary to use objective methods so that the result can be verified.

The final work should always make some contribution to practice or even to theoretical body of knowledge. The proposed research should address some relevant issues that are new or challenging, or devise a new approach to a well known problem. The research can follow other similar studies and build on, further expand, refine or reject them.

2 Selection of final thesis topic - interviews

Students apply for topics offered by specific teachers. The dates are announced by the faculty for each academic year and are binding. Registration takes place via the university information system (

The student comes to the interview with a proposal for the assignment (if it is not already announced by the teacher) and a clear idea of ​​its processing. We recommend, and some educators require it, to send a proposal in advance. The characteristics of the assignment structure and how to work it out are in Chapter 3. Always read the annotation of the topic in the information system. It may contain additional requirements and instructions. 

The interview usually takes the form of a discussion on this assignment and on specific aspects of the solution. The student should attend the audition primarily according to the instructions of the teacher and respect his specific requirements and deadlines.

3 Thesis assignment

3.1 What is an assignment

The assignment is a binding document that is part of the final work. It is prepared together with the supervisor in the very beginning of the work. The student must adhere to the thesis assignment after its approval. The thesis assignment is entered into the CZU Information System and electronically approved by the thesis supervisor, the head of the department and the dean. Further edits of the assignment are not then possible by default.

The fulfillment of the assignment is checked by the thesis supervisor, opponent as well as by the commission during the final state exams! 

The focus of the work must correspond to the profile of the department, study program and the faculty profile.

3.2 Structure

Thesis title

  • The title of the thesis (and the topic as a whole) must correspond to the focus of the department (DIT) and the study program!
  • It is better to keep it a bit more general, but it must be in line with the objectives of the work (see below).


Field of work:

  • Optional specification and/or definition of the field of the work.

Main objective:

  • The main goal is always just one. It contains a clear and specific description of a problem (or a research question) that the student will address by conducting the research.
  • The objective must be linked to the thesis title.
  • Note: 'Application development' could only be a mean to the end, not a main objective of the thesis.

Partial objectives (in a bullet format):

  • 3-4 partial objectives, i.e. further steps addressing the main objective.
  • partial steps that help to achieve the main goal.


"The theoretical part of the work is based on the study and analysis of professional and scientific information sources. The thesis addresses <fill in the title> with a specific focus on <add the specification of the field of work - see above>. ..."

The methodology further contains a brief description of the used methods and data. It characterizes how the thesis objectives will be achieved, how data will be obtained and how the data will be evaluated.

"Based on the synthesis of knowledge of the theoretical part and evaluation of the results of the practical part, the conclusions of the work will be formulated."


6 to 10 basic terms closely related to the main objective of the work.


4-5 books and articles. These sources should then be used in the research. The list of literature must be formatted according to ISO 690 citation style. Literature should always be up to date, preferably within past 5-10 years depending on the topic. It is highly advisable to add at least one or two latest sources. Recommended sources of information are in Chapter 5.

3.3 Page length and other requirements

In addition, please pay attention to the following requirements and recommendations:

  • The scope of the Bachelor Thesis is usually 40 to 50 pages.
  • The scope of the Diploma Thesis is usually 60 to 80 pages.
  • The theoretical part and practical part of the thesis should be in 50:50 ratio of the total page count.
  • The page count starts from the Introduction section till Conclusion.
  • The page count is always specified in the thesis assignment which is should be followed by the author of the thesis.
  • Conducting research in a real company or in cooperation with a real company is always appreciated.
  • A successfully defended final thesis will be published in the university information system and will become publicly accessible.

4 Content and structure of thesis

Note: You must download and use the official thesis template from the faculty website

4.1 Chapter 1 - Introduction

Length: around 1 page

This section contains a general introduction to the topic. The Introduction can present a basic framing of the topic, its defintion, importance and position within a social context. The Introduction is divided into paragraphs only, not subchapters.

4.2 Chapter 2 - Objectives and methodology

Length: around 1 page

The Objectives and Methodology section contains either an exact copy of the passage from the assignment, or (even better), a more detailed specification of the methodology, used data and procedures. It depends on how the assignment was written in general.

Note: Objectives and methodology must be always in line with the thesis assignment.

4.3 Literature review

Length: at least 50 % of the overall page count

The Literature Review section contains an overview of the literature - a description of the current state of knowledge in the field. It should be critical, i.e., it should draw from multiple sources, compare sources, argue over them and select relevant information from them. Summarize current knowledge and characterize how other authors view and address the issue. The aim is to incorporate the most important information from scientific and professional literature. 

Note: You are not supposed to write an instruction manual or a textbook.

The text is divided into subheadings and paragraphs. The text must contain sufficient number of citations (in-text references). Each paragraph containing at least one citation would be optimal. There should be no page left without any appropriate citation.

Recommended sources of information and work with them are presented in Chapter 5.

4.3.1 Recommended subchapters within the Literature Review section

3.x Other solutions/theories/approaches

This subchapter should contain an overview of other solutions/theories/approches that were taken by different authors to address similar problem like your thesis. Furthermore, you should analyze differences between the identified solutions/theories/approaches compare them and identify their strengths and weaknesses. By doing so, you will be able to highlight novelty of your work.

This text may be also integrated into other subchapters within the Literarure Review section. In that case, you should summarize everything in the next subchapter.

3.y Summary

This subchapter contains a brief summary of the theoretical part and the implications for the practical part, as well as the identification of the problem, so called research opportunity.

4.4 Chapter 4 - Practical Part

The practical part contains a description of the research design including data collection methodology, experiment documentation and application of methods. Write here how the results were achieved. This procedure should allow someone else to repeat everything with the same results.

4.5 Chapter 5 - Results and Discussion

Length: 2-4 pages

This section describes and evaluates the results (graphs, tables, figures) achieved in the of the practical part. Further, a more detailed evaluation of the obtained results should be elaborated here in order to address the main thesis objective. Discussion means contrasting the results with similar research or studies from other authors.

4.6 Conclusion

Length: 1-2 pages

This section summarizes the results of the work and their implications. Conclusion should provide answers to all objectives. You can also emphasize the contribution that your work makes. You can also outline furhter research opportunities, suggest expansion of the research and possible practical applications. There must be an explicit link between goals set in the thesis assignment and conclusions.  

5 Recommended sources of literature

6 Terms and credits

Note: the following obligations and deadlines are the required minimum and are binding. Failure to do so means failure to be eligible for the credit or termination of the work.

The exact terms, requirements and method of communication are always determined by the supervisor.

1st credit (Summer Semester)


end of May
consultation with the supervisor, insert the assingment into the UIS

1st draft of the thesis: min. 20 pages (bachelor)/ 30 pages (master) 

mid August
send by email for review, consultation

2nd credit (Winter Semester)

Progress check

mid December
send by email for review


before the Bachelor / Diploma Thesis Seminar 
in person upon booking an appointment

Bachelor Thesis Seminar (in campus)

end of January
mock thesis defence in front of the committee

Diploma Thesis Seminar (Všeradice)

3rd week of semester (Thursday)
mock thesis defence in front of the committee

3rd credit (Summer Semester)

Final consultation

a month before final submission
e-mail/in person

Thesis submission

according to the official dates published by the FEM CZU
(usually 15 March for Bachelor Theses and 31 March for Master Theses)

7 Thesis seminars organized by DIT

7.1 Bachelor Thesis Seminar

The Department of Information Technology always organizes a bachelor's seminar for its students by the end of January. It usually takes place in campus. Students will present their thesis during a mock defence in front of the committee. 

The seminar always takes place one morning or afternoon for a group of about 12 to 16 students in a meeting room. The presentation is evaluated by a committee composed of the members of the department.

Note: Attendance at the seminar is a mandatory requirement for the credit for the 2nd thesis credit!

7.2 Diploma Thesis Seminar

This seminar is organized by the department for the master's students as an out of campus event for a whole day. For the last few years, the seminar has been held in the castle grounds in Všeradice. Here, students will do a presentation of their thesis during a mock defence in front of the committee.

The seminar takes place throughout the day and students are divided into sections. The presentation is evaluated by a committee composed of members of the department and invited pracititioners. At the end of the day, the best works are announced and awarded. You can read more about the seminar here:

Note: Attendance at the seminar is a mandatory requiremen for the credit for the 2nd thesis credit!

8 Thesis defense - presentation structure

The presentation in front of the committee is usually for 5-8 minutes and further 5 minutes for questions in bachelor's theses. For diploma theses, it is about 10-15 and further 5-10 minutes for questions. Students present from Power Point. Note: the commission may be behind the schedule and may request to "skip" to the results and conclusion sections.

The structure of the presentation should be as the following:

Opening slide - 1 slide

  • Thesis title, name, study program, supervisor's name

Objectives of the work - 1 slide

  • Emphasize the main goal, list also partial goals

Methodology - 1 slide

Theoretical part - 1 slide

  • Only a list of topics that the literature review covers

Practical part - about 3 slides

  • Research design, data collection, use of methods

Results - 1 to 2 slides

Conclusions - 1 slide

Follow the general principles of presentations (watch for contrast, font size, brevity). See Chapter 9 for more recommendations.

9 Tips and recommendations

  • Don't try to solve everything or "save the world".
  • Try to go in depth and address a specific problem.
  • Always follow the instructions published on the faculty website.

9.1 Thesis assignment

  • Use passive voice and future tense.
  • Set out the main objective more general to allow for a bit of flexibility.
  • It is tactical to write so that the text is independent of changes that may occur before the submission of the work since thesis is a 3-semester project.
  • It is therefore not appropriate to name a specific company where the solution will be implemented (the company may go bankrupt, the key employee may leave, job termination, change in the company focus, etc.) - it is  better to refer to a "selected company" or "chosen environment".

9.2 Methodology

  • Select and use appropriate empirical methods to solve the problem.
  • Application development is not a method !!! (and it does not matter what language, framework, platform or stack you want to use)
  • Use of questionnaire survey must be justified in relation to the topic and must be consulted with the supervisor.
  • Multiple-criteria decision analysis can be used for comparison. However, the choice of criteria and weights must be always properly explained and justified.
  • It is appropriate to perform an experiment (or series of them), collect and analyse data and interpret results.

9.3 Formatting in Word and typographic rules

  • Use from the very beginning the official Word template for thesis.
  • Don't forget the numbering of headings .
  • Figures, tables and the like must always be accompanied by a number and title. In Word, use Insert Caption. This will allow for producing a list of figures and list of tables.
  • Every picture, table or diagram must have its own justification, i.e. bring something new and contribute to a better understanding of the text.
  • Divide text into paragraphs, i.e. one paragraph = one idea .
  • When writing, pay attention to "orphans" - prepositions and conjunctions isolated at the end of the line (use the Ctrl-Shift-character).
  • We recommend using styles for formatting the text of the document (this depends on the correct numbering of chapters, table of content creation, creation of a list of tables, graphs and figures, etc.)
  • Each Heading level 1 should start on a new page. This can be edited in heading style.
  • Number the headings up to the 4th level maximum. Try to avoid level 5 for better readability.
  • In the Table of Content, use maximum three levels of headings.
  • Use in-text references in the Literature Review and Results and Discussion sections - see the following chapter.

9.4 Scope of work

  • Stay withing the page count specified in the thesis assignment.
  • The page count is calculated from the Introduction to the Conclusion section.
  • Each paragraph should have at least 3 lines of text.
  • Each numbered chapter should have at least 3 paragraphs.

9.5 Sources of literature and citations

  • Do not cite articles from Wikipedia - the author is unknown, the content can be changed at any time and by anyone, it is not possible to date the latest version of the article. An alternative approach is to check sources below the article and, if they are still available and relevant, quote them.
  • Use a citation manager and put all citations in it from the beginning.
  • The citation manager takes care of the correct citation style, numbering and creates an automatic list of bibliography. It can often generate a citation based on an ISBN, ISSN, or DOI of the article.
    • Recommended citation managers: Mendeley, or References in Word.
  • Compare and verify resources. Especially if you draw from websites and articles, verify the information from multiple sources.
  • Each image, table, graph, source code must be referenced in the text, e.g., see table no. 6.
  • If you want to take another picture, table, diagram or chart, make sure its license permits non-commercial reuse, otherwise you must obtain a written permission of the author. Copying content without the permission of the copyright holder is punishable by law!

9.6 Language and style of writing

  • Use professional language and always express yourself as accurately as possible!
  • Avoid the popular style used in many web articles.
  • You do not write instructions or textbooks.
  • Use third person or passive voice e.g., "it was found that", "it was verified", etc.
  • Always have your text proof read by a native or near-native English speaker before final submission

9.7 Presentation - thesis defense

  • Try the presentation at least for yourself, and keep track of time.
  • In the theoretical part, mention only briefly the key topics and their implications for the practical part (your own research).
  • Use bullet-point style short phrases, no full sentences
  • Have enough contrast between the text and the background. Your monitor is likely different from a screen in a sun-lit room where you will defend the thesis.
  • When tabulating data always think about what message it should deliver.
  • One compact table may be better than a series of pie charts.
  • Do not read from slides or paper, speak from top of your head
  • Having short notes printed at hand during presentation is a good practice
  • Don't keep your hands in your pockets.

9.8 Other sources of information

Final Thesis (FEM website)

Tips for academic writing and citations (CZU Library):

Citations and Reference Managers (video lecture by CZU Library):

Before asking, please read the text above

10 Annex

10.1 Assignment samples


Thesis title: The effect of CSS on the performance and loading speed of web pages

Thesis objectives

Main objective:

The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact and possibly identify the limits of the so-called expensive CSS properties on loading web pages and applications.

Partial objectives:

  • Select specific expensive CSS properties for further analysis.
  • Create a test website.
  • Design and perform experimental measurements of test page load performance.


The methodology of solving the theoretical part of the diploma thesis will be based on the study and analysis of professional information sources. Based on the knowledge gained in the theoretical part of the work, the practical part will identify the appropriate CSS properties and metrics for measuring the loading, rendering and performance of web pages. Furthermore, experimental measurements will be performed using appropriate tools. The obtained data will be evaluated. Based on the synthesis of theoretical knowledge and the results of the practical part, the conclusions of the work will be formulated.


Thesis title: Initial user experience

Thesis objectives              

The diploma thesis deals with the issue of UX and the usability of mobile applications for new users.

The main objective of this work is to implement methods of initial contact of the user with the application and evaluate their impact on adaptation to the application environment.

The partial objectives are:

  • selection of appropriate metrics for measuring and tracing application usage,
  • implementation and data collection for the evaluation of selected quantitative metrics,
  • evaluation of individual methods.


The methodology of solving the theoretical part of the diploma thesis will be based on the study and analysis of professional information sources. Based on the knowledge gained in the theoretical part of the work, individual methods of initial contact will be implemented in the practical part into the experimental application. Subsequently, appropriate usability tests will be performed and evaluated, focusing on the methods of initial contact of the user with the application, initial setup and acquaintance of the user with the application environment. Based on the synthesis of theoretical knowledge and the results of the practical part, the conclusions of the work will be formulated.


Thesis title: Use of smart watches when playing the guitar

Thesis objectives               

The main objective of this work is to design procedures for analyzing and using data obtained using smart watch sensors to control the rhythm when playing the guitar.

The partial goals of the work are:

  • design and execution of experiments
  • data collection from sensors
  • data description


The methodology of the diploma thesis is based on the study and analysis of professional information sources. The practical part is based on the design of experiments, collection and analysis of data obtained from smart watches while playing the guitar. Furthermore, optimal methods of automatic data analysis will be sought. Based on the synthesis of theoretical knowledge and the results of the practical part, the conclusions of the work will be formulated.




Melanie Suchá
+420 22438 2364
Office: E342


Kamýcká 129
165 00
Praha - Suchdol
+420 22438 2364